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Prevention and Treatment of Enterovirus

1. Introduction to Enterovirus

The enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family of viruses, which are mainly divided into 5 subgenera, including polioviruses (3 serotypes), coxsackieviruses (23 serotypes for group A and 6 serotypes for group B), echoviruses (30 serotypes), and enterovirus (type 68). So far, no specific antiviral medication or treatment is available for an enteroviral infection. The best care is provided through supportive measures. Around 50% to 80% people suffering from an enteroviral infection were asymptomatic, or only show common cold-like symptoms; however, they unconsciously became the epidemic media. Although the enterovirus infection is easily spread, it can effectively decrease the chance of infection by getting into the habit of health care and regularly performing the disinfection of the home environment.

2. Disinfection Methods for Enterovirus

  1. For general environment (bleach: water = 1:100): prepare the cleaning solution by adding 50cc of commercially available bleach (with the concentration of 5-6%) into 5 liters of tap water (the capacity of each large plastic bottle is 1,250cc and hence 4 bottles are equal to 5 liters) followed by mixing it evenly and then use the resulting solution to sterilize the object surface (door handles, classroom desks and chairs, tables, staircase hand rail) that you come into contact with frequently, toys, recreational facilities, bed sheets and books.
  2. For children’s secretions or excretions (bleach: water = 1:50): prepare the cleaning solution by adding 50cc of commercially available bleach (with the concentration of 5-6%) into 2.5 liters of tap water (the capacity of each large plastic bottle is 1,250cc and hence 4 bottles are equal to 5 liters) followed by mixing it evenly and then use the resulting solution to disinfect the contaminated area.
  3. An environment above 50°C, UV and aldehydes, halogen disinfectants (such as commercially available chlorine bleach) can all make enterovirus lose its vitality. Therefore, processing food with heat treatment, moving the objects that have been cleaned outdoors to get sunlight, and proceeding indoor environmental disinfection regularly, can reduce the spread of enterovirus.

3. Timing to Treat Enterovirus Infection

Most people who are infected with enterovirus can spontaneously get healed within 7-10 days. If a child in the household suffering from an enteroviral infection, the parents should pay close attention to observe whether any of the following precursory symptoms appeared that may cause the serious complications, and should take the child to a large hospital immediately, to prevent disease progression.

  1. Hypersomnia, altered consciousness, poor vitality, limb weakness.
  2. Myoclonic jerk (no reason to startle or sudden contraction of muscles).
  3. Persistent vomiting.
  4. Shortness of breath or rapid heartbeat. If you have any questions, please call the 24-hour epidemic prevention hotline at 2375-3782.

Prevention of Avian Influenza

1. Introduction to Avian Influenza

Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian influenza viruses. The viruses can be divided into highly pathogenic and low pathogenic strains based on the virulence for poultry. Among poultry (e.g., chicken, turkey, etc.), the avian influenza can be spread through droplets, droppings, personnel, vehicles, implements, eggs, migratory birds, and wild birds, causing the respiratory diseases and deaths of poultry. The avian influenza viruses do not usually infect humans; however, there still has a small possibility to be transmitted to people who have direct or close contact with infected poultry or their excretions, leading to be infected by inhalation or through contact with eye or nasal mucosa. Initial symptoms of avian influenza in humans is likely to that caused by flu, for instance, fever (greater than 38°C), sore throat, cough, muscle aches, headache, general malaise, etc., and sometimes the patients have vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Symptoms of lower respiratory tract, such as difficulty breathing may follow a few days later. Do a good job of self-protection, pay attention to personal hygiene, and follow the “Six Don’t and Three Do Guidelines” can effectively prevent the threat of avian influenza.

2. To Prevent Avian Influenza, Be Sure to Follow the “Six Don’t and Three Do Guidelines”

Six Don’t

  1. Don’t feed migratory birds and ordinary birds in close distance.
  2. Don’t travel to area where avian influenza is widespread to observe poultry farming or exhibitions.
  3. Don’t purchase poultry products that come from unknown sources.
  4. Don’t purchase and eat diseased poultry.
  5. Don’t slaughter poultry on your own.
  6. Don’t eat raw poultry meat, eggs, and their relevant products.

Five Do

  1. Do eat fully-cooked poultry products (by heating above 70°C).
  2. Do wash hand diligently.
  3. Do get influenza vaccination.
  4. Do receive medical treatment when getting parainfluenza.
  5. Do take measures to prevent from Avian Influenza.

Seasonal Influenza Vaccination is Available on October 1, 2022.

1.Why should people get vaccinated against the flu?

Influenza is a serious disease that can lead to hospitalization and sometimes even death. Even healthy people can get very sick from the flu and spread it to others. Department of Health, Taipei City Government estimates that severe complicated influenza is 205 cases, of which 30 cases death since 2017. Most of them don’t get vaccination. An annual seasonal flu vaccine is the best way to reduce your risk of getting sick with seasonal flu and spreading it to others. When more people get vaccinated against the flu, less flu can spread through that community.

2.Who should get vaccinated?

  1. Children and adolescents aged 6 months through 18 years old.
  2. People aged 50 years old and older.
  3. Individuals with chronic medical conditions, including those with BMI≧30, rare diseases, or major illness/injury.
  4. Pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy and parents up to 6 months after newborn delivery.
  5. Caregivers of children in kindergartens and childcare institutions.
  6. People who are residents and employees of nursing homes and long-term care facilities.
  7. Health care and public health personnel.
  8. Poultry farmers and animal health inspectors. Vaccination of above populations( high risk persons) is especially important to decrease their risk of severe flu illness.
  9. Expand vaccination for people who have not been vaccinated for aged more than 6 months since January 6, 2022.

3.When should people get vaccinated?

  1. You should get a flu vaccine now, if you haven’t gotten one already since last October. It’s best to get vaccinated before flu begins spreading. It takes about two weeks after vaccination for antibodies to develop in the body that protect against flu. The best time to receive flu vaccines is from October onwards.
  2. Children less than 8 years old who get first vaccination need two doses of vaccine to be protected should start the vaccination process sooner, because the two doses must be given at least four weeks apart.

4.Where should people get vaccinated?

Department of Health, Taipei City Government recommends the public to visit our official website and select the nearest contract medical institutions for the purpose of convenience.

For any questions regarding disease prevention, please contact the DOH disease control hotline 02-2375-3782 or 1999 Taipei Citizen Hotline for relevant information.